Журнал эффектов и контроля загрязнения

Журнал эффектов и контроля загрязнения
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ISSN: 2375-4397


Regulated Gaseous Emissions from In-use High Horsepower Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing Engines

Johnson DR*, Heltzel R, Nix AC, Clark N and Darzi M

Unconventional well development is an energy intensive process, which relies heavily on diesel fuel to power high-horsepower engines. To reduce emissions and fuel costs, and increase natural gas utilization, industry has employed a limited number of dual fuel compression-ignited and dedicated natural gas spark-ignited engines. However, little in-use data are available for conventional engines or these new technologies. We measured regulated gaseous emissions from engines servicing the unconventional natural gas well development industry to understand better their in-use characteristics such that insight into real world emissions factors could be developed for use by researchers, regulators, or industry. Data collection efforts were limited by low utilization of these new technologies, therefore these data may not be representative of the current distribution of engines either nationally or by shale play. Emissions and fuel consumption were collected from two drilling engines operating as Tier 2 diesel only and dual fuel, two drilling engines that were dedicated natural gas, and two hydraulic fracturing engines operated as diesel only and dual fuel. Emissions for diesel only operation were below Tier 2 certification standards for carbon monoxide and non-methane hydrocarbon plus oxides of nitrogen. Dual fuel engines require use of oxidation catalysts to reduce carbon monoxide and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions resulting from this mode of combustion. For dual fuel engines with diesel oxidation catalysts, carbon monoxide emissions were reduced below Tier 2 diesel only standards by an order of magnitude. Dual fuel operation showed varied effects on non-methane hydrocarbon plus oxides of nitrogen emissions depending on configuration. These variations were mainly driven by some technologies increasing or decreasing oxides of nitrogen emissions. One dual fuel drilling engine failed to meet Tier 2 standards, as it did not include a diesel oxidation catalyst. Of the two dedicated natural engines tested, one had a failed catalyst and did not meet off-road standards for spark-ignited engines; however, emissions from the engine with the properly functioning catalyst were well below standards. Dedicated natural gas engines also demonstrated potential to meet Tier 2 carbon monoxide regulations while producing significantly lower oxides of nitrogen emissions than diesel only or dual fuel engines.