Журнал заболеваний щитовидной железы и терапии

Журнал заболеваний щитовидной железы и терапии
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ISSN: 2167-7948


Autoantibodies as Biomarkers in Thyroid Diseases

Masayoshi Nakano1*, Ayako Miyazaki1, Hiroe Konishi1, Rika Yukimatsu2, Toru Watanabe2, Masahiro Koshiba1

Thyroid diseases are common pathologies in primary care settings, and many patients with such diseases are treated by physicians who are not specialized in thyroid conditions. To diagnose such diseases earlier, some biological biomarkers have been identified. Anti-TSH receptor antibodies, which are considered the cause of Graves’ disease, are autoantibodies that bind to TSH receptors and activate the thyroid gland. The measurement of anti-TSH receptor antibodies is crucial for diagnosing, managing, and monitoring the treatment of Graves’ disease. This test has high sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic tool. Conversely, antibodies against the TSH receptor do not have just one property; thus, the anti-TSH receptor antibody assay system could be improved to distinguish the different functions of antibodies. Patients diagnosed with thyroid disorders can generate TSH receptor autoantibodies that can either impede or encourage thyroid hormone production. Additionally, the levels of thyroid-stimulating antibodies present in the bloodstream have a positive correlation with the severity of Graves’ orbitopathy. To clearly reflect these pathologies in the clinical laboratory results, more detailed tests should be promoted. The molecular characteristics of thyroid-related antibodies are being elucidated and are expected to have clinical applications not only in testing but also in treatment.